Anita Chodkowska

Apteki warszawskie w okresie wojny, okupacji i Powstania

Pharmacies in Warsaw during World War II, German occupation and Warsaw Uprising. Pharmaceutical society participated in all preparations to the war in a very active way. Just before the beginning of the war, Polish General Pharmaceutical Society asked to boycott all German merchandise. On the September 1st, 1939 all Warsaw pharmacies were open. The rules of their functioning were regulated by two orders of Warsaw president Stefan Starzyński, they are dated for the September 1st and 10th, 1939. That time the pharmacies were the first places where the aid was looked for and where casualties were taken after the bombings. Near many pharmacies people organized sanitary and food posts for soldiers and refugees. After the capitulation and the entrance of German troops into Warsaw, works which were supposed to normalize people lives and a try to going back into prewar structures were started. Soon it appeared that pharmacies were very useful in an underground activity. Many of them became contact mailboxes, chemists gathered and gave funds to buy weapons, they supplied the guerrillas, prisons and concentration camps in medicines. All pharmacies like the city were totally destroyed during or after the downfall of Warsaw Uprising. The pharmacists lost their all goods, belongings and supplies of medicines which were stocked in basements and warehouses. Many of chemists died, and letters of dead and killed for a long time
appeared in press. After the war the pharmacists came back into the ruined city.