Joanna Małyszko, Jacek S. Małyszko

Przewlekła niewydolność nerek

Chronic renal failure. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. The National Kidney Foundation - Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-K/DOQI) workgroup has defined CKD as the following, which has been accepted internationally: the presence of markers of kidney damage for 3 months, as defined by structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney with or without decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), manifest by either pathological abnormalities or other markers of kidney damage, including abnormalities in the composition of blood or urine, or abnormalities in imaging tests. Stages of chronic kidney disease, diagnosis symptoms and pharmacologic treatment of chronic renal failure (eGRF below 60 ml/min) are presented. Guidelines for early diagnosis and treatment of chronic renal insufficiency are given. Methods of renal replacement therapy in a form of hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation are presented as well as most common complications of these therapies.