Ewa Łuksza, Janusz Kłoczko

Przeciwdziałanie skutkom niepożądanym leczenia cytostatycznego

The neutralization of chemotherapy side-effects. Chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with advanced malignant disease. However, effective use of chemotherapy is limited by toxic effects, the most common of which are nausea and vomiting, mucositis and myelosupression. Chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting are associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. Although use 5- hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptors antagonists plus dexamethasone has significantly improved the control of acute vomiting, delayed nausea and vomiting still remain a significant clinical problem. Aprepitant is the first agent of the new drug class of neurokinin- 1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists effective in the managment of delayed nausea and vomiting. There is no standard prophylactic regimen for chemotherapy- induced mucositis. The most common treatment is optimum care of the mouth; keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) may also reduce mucositis. Colony stimulating factors (CSF) are used to accelerate marrow recovery after chemotherapy and to shorten the duration of severe neutropenia. In cancer patients a common complication is anaemia, which is caused by tumor growth and chemotherapy. Anaemia can be effectively treated with erytropoetin (EPO).